One of the essential and recurring challenges of regulating unlawful conduct on the Internet—be it child pornography, harassment, fraud, data theft, content piracy, or otherwise—is identifying who is responsible.
Frequently, one can identify an IP address that is (or may be) a target of interest. IP addresses can be traced to responsible organizations, through publicly accessible registries. However, to complete the chain back to a person generally requires the cooperation of the organization.
Commercial ISPs are in the business of providing IP addresses (and network connectivity) to their customers. So, inevitably, they find themselves on the receiving end of many … Continue Reading
On October 5, 2017, the Nova Scotia Legislature introduced Bill No. 27, the Intimate Images and Cyber-protection Act (the “Cyber-protection Act”, or the “Act”). The Act comes as Nova Scotia’s previous cyber-bullying legislation, the Cyber-safety Act (“CSA”), was struck down in 2015 by the Nova Scotia Supreme Court on constitutional challenge.
UPDATE: The Act has now been passed and has received Royal Assent. It will come into force at a later date, yet to be determined.
The Cyber-protection Act, like the CSA, is notable for making Nova Scotia the first Canadian province … Continue Reading
From August 9, 2017 to September 29, 2017, Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada is holding a public consultation on proposed reforms to the Copyright Board of Canada.
Among its other regulatory functions, the Copyright Board of Canada establishes the amount of tariffs to be paid for copyrighted content in a variety of areas where a copyright collective is tasked with administering those rights. These areas include music streaming, the public performance of music, educational copying, and the retransmission of television signals.
The consultation comes after a lengthy history of stakeholder complaints concerning the decision-making processes of the Board, including … Continue Reading
In March 2017, the European Commission (EC) issued a public consultation document on Fintech. Cloud computing is a major area covered by the EC request for comment and requires delicate balancing between innovation and risk minimization. On one hand, cloud is an easily scalable and cost effective way for financial institutions to manage their data storage and processing. However, cloud also presents major banks with increased cybersecurity and compliance risk. The topic of cloud is particularly relevant because certain Fintech enterprises may not be subject to the same regulatory constraints as major financial institutions.
The European Banking Authority (EBA) published … Continue Reading
Intellectual property is transferrable. And you should be careful with how you transfer your IP among your corporate family, especially if it constitutes the principal value in your business – and in your life’s work!
One IP owner in Alberta had the misfortune of making a transfer to a subsidiary which he eventually allowed to be dissolved. When it came time to assert his ownership rights in the technology in a court, his suit was summarily dismissed as meritless.
Recently, the Alberta Court of Appeal ruled that this outcome was correct.… Continue Reading
The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) has confirmed that recent moves to regulate wireless roaming in Canada do not require incumbents to support competitive business models based on “permanent” roaming.… Continue Reading
With relatively little fanfare, on January 17, 2017, the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) issued a regulatory policy imposing new direct regulatory obligations on Telecommunications Service Providers (TSPs) in Canada.
Historically, the CRTC’s direct regulatory powers have applied to “Canadian carriers”, who are the owners (or operators) of the physical telecommunications infrastructure in Canada.
The CRTC’s authority over non-carrier TSPs, who do not own that infrastructure was, until recently, more tenuous. In the absence of a direct statutory authority to impose conditions on non-carrier TSPs, the CRTC instead required Canadian carriers to impose certain requirements (such as the obligation … Continue Reading
On February 8, 2017, the Quebec Court of Appeal certified a class action by Copibec against Université Laval, for copyright infringement.
This decision overturns a Superior Court ruling from 2016, which would have dismissed the claim on the basis that Copibec did not satisfy the eligibility requirements under the province’s Code of Civil Procedure for an association to bring a class action on behalf of its members.
Copibec is a collective management organization representing book publishers, visual artists, and newspaper and periodical authors and publishers in Quebec.
Copibec alleges that, in 2014, Université Laval declined to renew its license agreement … Continue Reading
One of the central features of the U.S. Digital Millennium Copyright Act (or DMCA)for online service providers is the combination of the Notice and Takedown regime and the corresponding Safe Harbour provision. Provided that online service providers properly carry out their obligations under these provisions, including by promptly removing infringing content when they receive compliant notices, they are shielded from liability for copyright violations by their users.
This system has critics among service providers, right holders, and users. But it has underpinned the explosion of user content-based services ranging from Facebook and YouTube to small community bulletin boards.
A critical … Continue Reading
Although CASL has been in force since July 1, 2014, the Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission (“CRTC”) has conducted its investigations and levied its penalties in a generally non-public manner. Until now, the CRTC’s Compliance and Enforcement branch had publicly commented on only one Notice of Violation (“NoV”) under CASL. We understand that an undisclosed number of other NoVs have been issued without public comment.
All other public CASL enforcement actions have taken the form of negotiated “undertakings” which are forms of settlements reached in confidential, closed door negotiations with the enforcement branch. This atmosphere of secrecy has made … Continue Reading
We recently attended the 18th Biennial National Conference: New Developments in Communications Law and Policy, a national symposium of the Law Society of Upper Canada and the Entertainment Media and Communications Law section of the Canadian Bar Association. This conference is always a stimulating and fascinating opportunity to share thoughts with colleagues in the Canadian communications sector. This year’s event was no exception.… Continue Reading
On March 24, 2016, the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (“CRTC”) signed a memorandum of understanding (“MOU”) with the United States Federal Trade Commission. This MOU is an effort by Canada and the United States to work together on anti-spam enforcement measures, and expressly refers to unsolicited telecommunications, unsolicited commercial electronic messages (spam), and other unlawful electronic threats (e.g., malware and botnets).… Continue Reading
In June 2015, the previous Conservative government tabled legislation to implement the Marrakesh Treaty to Facilitate Access to Published Works for Persons Who Are Blind, Visually Impaired, or Otherwise Print Disabled. However the bill was introduced shortly before the summer break and, as it turned out, Parliament was dissolved before the legislature returned.
On March 24, 2016, the new Liberal government tabled a substantially identical bill, now known as C-11.
As was the case for its predecessor, the bill broadens the existing exception in section 32, including by removing the exclusion of large print books and by expressly … Continue Reading
On March 9, McCarthy Tétrault and IP Osgoode jointly hosted a symposium titled Effective IP Strategy to Drive Innovation in the Financial Services Sector. This event brought together academics, business people, and lawyers for a discussion of how technological change is transforming the financial service sector and pushing incumbents and disruptors alike to think carefully about their IP strategies.
After introductory remarks from Barry Sookman and Giuseppina D’Agostino, the event set a brisk tempo and covered a lot of ground in two short hours. The discussion was organized around three panels.
The first panel, moderated by Matt Flynn… Continue Reading
On Wednesday, February 10, 2016, the US took a step towards assuaging privacy concerns regarding transatlantic data transfers when the House passed a bill granting European citizens recourse to US Courts to protect treatment of their personal data. Now heading to President Obama for signature, the Judicial Redress Act would give European citizens the right to pursue legal action against certain US agencies in American courts if their personal data has been mishandled when used by the US in criminal and terror investigations. As the EU and US work out a framework to replace Safe Harbour in light of concerns … Continue Reading
Thanks for reading! snIP/ITs continues to be one of McCarthy Tétrault’s most popular blogs, and we appreciate your attention. But we are always looking for ways to improve.
So we want your feedback. Please consider completing our short reader survey. We are interested to know what topics you would like to see more (or less) of in the future. (None of the questions involve personal or demographic information, but respondent IP addresses will be recorded.)… Continue Reading
On February 10, 2016, Lynne Perrault and Dana-Lynn Wood of the CRTC provided the latest in what is becoming a series of CASL briefings, which the presenters described as part of an “on-going dialogue” with industry. The CRTC now has a year and a half of enforcement experience under its belt for the Commercial Electronic Messages (CEMs) provisions of CASL, so this presentation focused on patterns and issues that have emerged in that period, and some guidance in response to those issues. However, the presenters took some pains to note that the guidance offered was not intended to be prescriptive … Continue Reading
Regular readers of this blog will be aware that, last fall, the Court of Justice of the European Union struck down the Safe Harbour framework which permitted the lawful transfer of personal information from the EU to the US through a self-certification model. Negotiations between the European and US authorities to update or replace the framework were already underway prior to this decision, but the Court’s intervention raised the stakes dramatically. The Article 29 Working Party (WP29) had set a deadline of the end of January after which European Data Protection Authorities (DPAs) might begin coordinated enforcement actions against organizations … Continue Reading
Throughout 2015, the Online Trust Alliance (“OTA”) (a U.S.-based non-profit organization which originated in 2005 as an informal industry working group drawn largely from the technology and marketing communities) has been working on a so-called “Trust Framework” for the Internet of Things. An earlier post covered the release of the first discussion draft in August.
After a public comment period, the OTA issued a “last call” draft in October, and followed up with a “pre-release” draft on December 3, 2015.
Although this draft is described as “pre-release”, the OTA’s consultation process for the framework appears to be over now. … Continue Reading
On December 3, 2015, the CRTC issued a release announcing its first-ever execution of a warrant under the Canadian anti-spam law (commonly known as “CASL”), as part of a coordinated international effort to disrupt a major botnet family.
The effort also involved law enforcement and cybersecurity authorities in the U.S., Europe, and Asia, as well as Microsoft and other private sector actors including ESET.
The target botnet family, known as “Dorkbot”, can be exploited to capture personal information (particularly passwords) from users of compromised PCs, to send out spam, or to participate in distributed denial of service … Continue Reading
By some estimates, there were more than 2 wireless networked devices for every person on the planet in 2014. The multiplier is expected to reach 5 by the year 2020.
This explosive proliferation of networked technology offers remarkable opportunities, but also inspires concern that the connected future may result in ubiquitous, inescapable, surveillance of every aspect of our lives. Legislators and regulators around the world are grappling with the implications of this technology for the ability to protect personal privacy interests and the practical problems of applying legal regimes originally developed in a very different era.
Against this backdrop, … Continue Reading
Copyright law offers up a panoply of interesting questions, which often verge on the philosophical. One such question is: if one tries to make a copy of something, but the copy is defective and useless, has one made a copy at all? According to a recent decision of Master Hanebury, of the Court of Queen’s Bench of Alberta, the answer could be yes.… Continue Reading
In today’s Internet, advertising is ubiquitous. It is the main source of revenue for many web sites and services. It is also the subject of increasing scrutiny by privacy advocates and regulators, as advertisers and ad networks develop ever-more sophisticated means to track and profile users in the quest to optimize their effectiveness.
In Canada, online behavioural advertising (sometimes referred to as interest-based advertising) has been the subject of significant attention from the Office of the Privacy Commissioner. The Office recently released a research report on the subject, concluding that many organizations and web sites are not fully-compliant with the … Continue Reading
However, local laws sometimes modify or invalidate these kinds of agreements. For … Continue Reading